You should know Fulwell


A few months ago I recounted how Network Rail, wanting historical information on the construction of a railway line in Kent in order to repair flood damage, had obtained this information from archives and claimed it as a discovery, when it is fairly well documented in secondary sources. Still, this is far better than failing properly to check the historical facts, as has now happened on another part of the network.

The Shepperton branch has long had a propensity to flood after heavy rain, immediately west of its first station at Fulwell. The branch is currently closed for two weeks while the drainage is improved. Network Rail and South West Trains have issued a leaflet informing passengers of these works and giving details of the replacement bus service. It also gives some historical information to show how the line came to be so vulnerable to flooding. “The Shepperton line,” it says, “was first built for freight trains in 1864 but was upgraded to allow pasenger services to use the line in 1901 and then electrified in 1916.”

Now this is rather obviously wrong. No one with the slightest feeling for architecture who looks at the station buildings on the branch such as Fulwell (pictured) could believe they were built as late as 1901, and if there was no passenger service until then why build them before? There was in fact a passenger service from the beginning in 1864, and Nigel Wikeley and John Middleton in Railway Stations: Southern Region (1971) say that these buildings, with their distinctive round-headed windows, are “believed original”.

NR and SWT have got hold of the wrong end of the stick. As Alan A Jackson records in London’s Local Railways (1978) the branch was built with its main line junction facing Strawberry Hill, and trains ran to Waterloo via Richmond. In 1894, largely for the use of race traffic to Kempton Park (and some freight), a chord was constructed from east of Fulwell to the main line facing Teddington. What did happen in 1901 is that occasional ordinary passenger trains began to use this chord to reach Waterloo via Kingston; only with electrification in 1916 did most of the service begin to run by this route, as it still does. All this is easy to discover. How did the garbled version get right through to the press, unchecked in either sense of the word?


Vote Remain

This blog is not normally overtly political, but I make an exception for the referendum on British membership of the European Union, which is probably the most significant vote any of us will cast in our lifetimes.

I urge readers of this blog who have a vote to vote today to remain in the EU.

Among many reasons I could cite the single market, which allows British firms to trade with other European nations with a minimum of bureaucracy; the threat to peace in Northern Ireland if the border between it and the Republic of Ireland has to become a sealed national border instead of the county boundary-like thing it is now; the workers’ rights European law has laid down which our national government would be reluctant to preserve; or the problems such as climate change which require supranational action to solve.

But it is the implications for the pursuit of scholarship which concern me here. In the sciences international co-operation in research projects is essential, and the availability of EU grants has made so many research projects possible. Professional scholars are free to seek work in any EU country, and EU membership has brought us easier travel, in its turn making easier the exchange of ideas between scholars through meetings and conferences.

The creative and performing arts – surely the first cousins of scholarship – are big earners of invisible exports; when orchestras and theatre and dance companies can travel abroad with the least difficulty it cannot but improve their ability to contribute to the country’s trade. And do remember the opportunities provided for the talented young in such ventures as the EU Youth Orchestra, a popular attraction throughout Europe, not least annually at the Proms.

But above all there is this. The pursuit of scholarship necessarily involves the qualification of rigid ideas, theories and categories. Archives, to take the principal preoccupation of this blog, can always disclose awkward facts for any pre-existing thesis; we must always be prepared to modify our view of matters we investigate. It follows that as scholars we should not treat nations as monoliths, nor should we wish to see rigid and impenetrable boundaries around them. We should rather look for all opportunities for cross-fertilisation of ideas between nations and engage wholeheartedly in the great construction for the international meeting of minds which is the EU.

Local history in the UK is a pursuit which engages all kinds of people: amateur and professional, and throughout society. It helps to preserve the character of localities against the encroachment of uniformity, including that imposed from the centre by governments. This problem of imposition from the centre would get worse if we left the EU, membership of which spreads power, and so counteracts the overweening power of Westminster. I believe it is not a coincidence that the first person I saw wearing an “I’m in” sticker was at the West London Local History Conference in March. The proprietors of the popular press favour our leaving the EU because they fear European law will curb their monopoly power. They are emphatically against the general improvement of minds which interests such as local history bring about; they want to be free to exploit us with their mind-rot.

I sketched out the above ideas some time ago. I write them up now in the wake of the indescribably terrible news of the murder of Jo Cox MP. A few weeks back I heard someone argue that we should leave the EU because “we want our country back” (I was not aware that we had lost it). But people are now saying in as many words, “I want my country back” in a very different sense: they want its gentleness, tolerance and open-mindedness restored. That includes an openness to other cultures which leaving the EU would negate. They are qualities which the disinterested pursuit of ideas encourages. Those of us who are engaged in the disinterested pursuit of ideas should not shun an organisation which provides so many ways to make that pursuit so much easier and broader.

Update.  See this post by Simon Wren-Lewis for an exceptionally fine defence of remaining in the EU and of reasoned argument.



If you travel on a Thameslink train between Tooting and Streatham, you can have, from the left-hand windows as you face forward, a rare view of old London.  It can be glimpsed only very briefly, and I would probably never have noticed it if a signal had not one day brought my train to a dead stand with my seat in just the right position, so that I was presented with the scene for as much as two minutes rather than perhaps two seconds.

Between the two stations the train travels at rooftop level for some distance, and there is a stretch where the only buildings to stick up above the houses are churches, some old London board schools – and one modern block.  The houses are initially a mixture of late nineteenth century terraces, inter-war and modern, but then we leave the inter-war and modern houses behind.  Some more modern houses will appear less than a minute later, but for that brief time we see only the late Victorian terraced houses.  A few seconds into that short time parallax causes one of the board schools momentarily to blot out the modern block (on the horizon, left) so that, TV aerials and suchlike apart, we glimpse a roofscape of gables, tiles and chimneys which has barely changed for at least a hundred years – or we would if someone in the foreground had not had a loft conversion done since I first noticed the phenomenon.

“Cast a cold eye on life, on death…” (5)

An occasional series of vignettes of the past, drawn from the archives I use.

Among the archives of the Middlesex County Council is this letter from the painter Dame Laura Knight (1877-1970), well known, amongst other things, for her fascination with the circus, and for her work as a war artist:




14 Dec. 1936

Re Coronation Mug

Dear Sir,

I have been in touch with Mr Fennemore of Messrs Lawleys and am writing to tell you that I am now at work on the necessary changes to bring the Mug design up to date.

My purpose in designing this Mug & that of the Manufacturers producing it is of putting within the reach of any purse, a pottery souvenir which we hoped would have aesthetic value worthy of so important an event as the Coronation of 1937.

Yours faithfully

Laura Knight

On 28 February 1953 Joan Heddle, personal assistant to the Clerk of the County Council, sent this letter to the County Archivist, Colonel William LeHardy, with the following note:

I feel this autograph is worth keeping. I have the sample mug (Edward VIII) in use.


Joan Heddle evidently thought the letter worth keeping because it related to Edward VIII. But she does not mention the letter’s precise significance. Did she, writing sixteen years later and possessing a sample Edward VIII mug (and with yet another coronation in the offing), have that significance at the front of her mind? The significance is that 14 December 1936 was three days after the abdication, so that “the necessary changes to bring the Mug design up to date” seems to be a coy way of referring to the need to create a George VI coronation mug out of the elements of the Edward VIII design. Certainly if we compare the two mugs:


we can see that they are really one design: the decoration – see in particular the very Laura-Knightish touch of the elephant on the right hand side – is I think identical. No artist likes to let material for unrealised designs go to waste, but here time for the alterations must have been so tight that this material could not but be used.

London Metropolitan Archives MCC/CL/CC/1/65

Brush up your Shakespeare

The floods around Christmas damaged a number of railway lines, among them the South Eastern Railway’s main line at Shakespeare Beach, between Folkestone and Dover. The March issue of the Railway Magazine reports that Network Rail has carefully investigated the construction of the sea wall in planning the repairs to the line. The report, judging by its style, was compiled from a Network Rail press release: Network Rail has had to turn archaeologist… Steve Kilby, senior programme manager for Network Rail, said…”. “The company”, reports the RM, “is having to take this approach because of an absence of any significant maintenance records from the Southern Railway era (1923-1947).” They have carried out a laser survey, and dug trenches and bore holes. “Not only that,” the report continues,

but they have also been spending time in local newspaper archives to try and find any useful information.

They have discovered that the railway here was originally carried on wooden trestles above the beach, but in 1927 the Southern Railway built the current sea wall alongside it. Thousands of tonnes of chalk were then deposited around the viaduct to encase it; the railway being relaid across the top.

Now Edwin Course, in The Railways of Southern England: The Main Lines (1973) writes: “the east end of Shakespeare Cliff Tunnel led out on to the top of the beach, which the railway followed on a wooden trestle viaduct. In 1927, as part of the Southern Railway’s improvements for continental traffic, this was replaced by an embankment supported on the seaward side by a concrete retaining wall.” And C. F. Dendy Marshall’s 1937 History of the Southern Railway (in Roger Kidner’s revised edition of 1963) quotes the Board of Trade’s inspecting officer in 1844, “the two short portions of the railway formed along the beach… have been protected… [at Shakespeare Beach] by a strong timber viaduct”, and adds, “The timber bridge survived until 1927… The line is now carried on an embankment behind a concrete wall.”

I am very glad that Network Rail’s staff used archives in their work. It is likely that in consulting old newspapers they went beyond the bare facts and learned something of the context and historical detail of the times of the railway’s construction and of its reconstruction, which is illuminating in itself. But the essence of the story – the line‘s structure where it runs along the beach – was not their discovery. (Edwin Course, who in his preliminaries mentions having used Dover public library, surely consulted some of the same papers.)

I hope Network Rail’s staff have acquired a taste for archives and their possibilities. But it is a pity they presented as an original discovery something they could have got from a secondary source – and that the Railway Magazine swallowed their press release whole. The Railway Magazine, the oldest publication of its kind, has long been a journal of record, but in this case PR sadly seems to have smothered scholarship.

Over park, over pale

I remarked in a previous post that the urban park is a distinctive form of landscape. What I have to discuss here is a very good example of this, but one which also shows that we do not always value the urban park for what it is.

Waddon Ponds is a small park near Croydon. It was until recently the point where the River Wandle first became visible; now at nearby Wandle Park upstream, where the river was chanelled through an underground pipe in the mid 1960s, it has once again been revealed. Still, the breadth of the ponds at Waddon is a stirring sight.SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERASAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERAIt is here that we first have the sense of a watercourse that will influence a whole district. The park once could not have been more of an urban park, and to some extent this is still so. The lawns,SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERASAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERA the flowerbeds, the shrubs,SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERA SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERAthe railings,SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERASAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERASAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERA SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERAthe surrounding housesSAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERASAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERA – all add up to an example of the gardener’s art which is both a resource for, and a dramatic foil to a densely populated district – and which could not reside anywhere but such a district.

Recent work on the park, however, has deliberately moved away from this characteristic scene. Notices at the park entrances tell us that:

Waddon Ponds is one of the few places in Croydon where you can see the River Wandle above ground. With its crystal-clear water it’s a much needed peaceful haven in the town centre.

Work is currently taking place to make the ponds more natural for the benefit of birds, amphibians and insects.

This work seems to have consisted mainly in planting reeds in the river and in the use of rough-cut timber to train them.SAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERASAMSUNG DIGITAL CAMERA

Why is there this impulse to turn everything into a semblance of country? Compare this with the marketing of the suburban house between the world wars as a country retreat. This practice has been conventionally criticised on the ground that suburban development turned to town the very countryside that was supposed to be its attraction. Not quite: the suburb is a distinctive landscape too, different from countryside or town. It is worth looking at, and pleasant to exist in, for its own qualities. (And wildlife of a distinctive kind can look after itself there too.)

A park such as Waddon Ponds is part of the suburban landscape. I do not think the alterations at Waddon have gone too far; but the attitude behind them carries the danger of smothering a distinctive and subtle savour which has never had its due – though it has remained popular with citizens.

Enjoyable walk…

I have now embarked on the London Loop. Last weekend I walked the section between Jubilee Park and West Wickham, in the Kentish suburbs, and crossed Keston Common. On a noticeboard there was a programme of monthly winter walks organised by the Friends of Keston Common. These alternated between two kinds, “Enjoyable Walk” and “History Walk”. Surely this doesn’t mean that the History Walks…?